Comparison of a ceiling-mounted 3D flat panel detector vs. conventional intraoperative 2D fluoroscopy in plate osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures with volar locking plate systems
Using a common volar approach on 12 cadaver forearms, total intraarticular distal radius fractures were induced, manually reduced and internally fixated with a 2.4 distal radius locking compression plate. 2D (anterior-posterior and lateral) and 3D (rotational) fluoroscopic images were taken as well as computed tomographies. Fluoroscopic images, Cone Beam CT (CBCT), 360° rotating sequences (so called "Movies") and CT scans were co-evaluated by a specialist orthopedic surgeon and a specialist radiologist regarding quality of fracture reduction, position of plate, position of the three distal locking screws and position of the three diaphyseal screws. In reference to gold standard CT, sensitivity and specifity were analyzed.
"Movie" showed highest sensitivity for detection of insufficient fracture reduction (88%). Sensitivity for detection of incorrect position of plate was 100% for CBCT and 90% for "Movie." For intraarticular position of screws, 2D fluoroscopy and CBCT showed highest sensitivity and specifity (100 and 91%, respectively). Regarding detection of only marginal intraarticular position of screws, sensitivity and specifity of 2D fluoroscopy reached 100% (CBCT: 100 and 83%). "Movie" showed highest sensitivity for detection of overlapping position of screws (100%). When it comes to specifity, CBCT achieved 100%. Regarding detection of only marginal overlapping position of screws, 2D fluoroscopy and "Movie" showed highest sensitivity (100%). CBCT achieved highest specifity (100%).
As for assessment of quality of fracture reduction and detection of incorrect position of plate as well as overlapping position of the three diaphyseal screws CBCT and "Movie" are comparable to CT - especially when combined. Particularly sensitivity is high compared to standard 2D fluoroscopy.