Vulnerability and response measures to natural hazard and sea level rise impacts: long-term coastal zone management, NE of the State of Pará, Brazil
The coastal zone of the NE of the State of Pará (Brazil)is affected by erosion and flooding problems. Their impacts are more evident in the main urban centers. This study aims to analyze how the natural hazards issue can be included into a contexts of a long-term integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) program, and to support state and municipal government activities. Within a modified Pressure-State-Impact-Response framework, current and potential pressures on the system are considered, as the global and relative sea level rise, and the growing human population and development scenarios for the next century. A GIS-based index was created to combine natural and socioeconomic variables in order to analyse the regional vulnerability and identify the most susceptible sectors. Response strategies and measures were analyzed according to the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change classification: no action, protection, accommodation, and retreat. Finally, some recommendations have been proposed to permit implementing new strategies and measures, and modifying and improving those already existent.
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