Unconventional nanomanufacturing on a substrate
Nanostructured materials may be defined as those materials whose structural elements (clusters, crystallites or molecules) have dimensions in the 1- to 100-nm range. The explosion in both academic and industrial interest in these materials over the past decade arises from the remarkable variations in fundamental electrical, optical and magnetic properties that occur as one progresses from an ‘infinitely extended’ solid to a particle of material consisting of a countable number of atoms. Nanoscience and nanotechnology cover many different areas, but one key set of methods for both concerns nanofabrication. There is a growing interest specifically in manufacturing methods allowing more efficient processes, minimising energy usage/cost and simplifying up-scaling requirements. In the framework of this thesis some novel processes of nanomanufacturing are established that are based on self-organization, with and without templates to from a large scale of 1D-horizontal nanostructures like wires and rings directly onto a substrate in a simple and cost-effective manner. The examination of these processes deals with the identification and control of the relevant growth and ordering parameters. This examination is done during the formation of ordered structures as well as after the growth process, so that the formed structures do not get distorted. The new paradigm for producing lateral nanostructures directly on a substrate is realized using unconventional approaches: A)Fracture Approach, shows a novel templated self-organization approach where thin film fracture is employed as a mould for guiding the self-organization of sputtered material to form nanowires. B)Drop Approach, concerns an unconventional template-less self-organization approach using a drop on hot plate. The building block is utilized by direct chemistry on the surface (localized chemistry) and the patterning is stimulated by external force like capillary and/or hydrodynamic instability.