Photoelectron Spectroscopy at a Free–Electron Laser: Investigation of Space–Charge Effects in Angle–Resolved and Core–Level Spectroscopy and Realization of a Time–Resolved Core–Level Photoemission Experiment
In this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle–resolved (ARPES), core–level (XPS) as well as time–resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at the free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time–resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space–charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N–body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations.
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