Zostera marina and epibionts : the dynamics of chemical defenses

In the dissertation, we described the existence of the chemical antifouling defense of Zostera marina. In general, the surface compounds on Z. marina are able to repel bacterial foulers in a non-toxic way. Three compounds were separated from the surface of Z. marina and rosmarinic acid was the most abundant and active compounds on the surface. Meanwhile, the seasonal fluctuation of chemical defense on Z. marina was observed, the peak of defense strength appeared in summer when the bacterial fouling pressures were the highest. In addition, we observed the significant correlations between the seasonality of antifouling defense and bacterial fouling pressure, suggesting Z. marina possibly regulate their defense base on the change of surrounded bacterial fouling pressure. In the end, we proved that Z. marina tends to upregulate their defense activity when they were facing high-temperature threats.


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