Linear Aminolipids with Moderate Antimicrobial Activity from the Antarctic Gram-Negative Bacterium Aequorivita sp.
The combination of LC-MS/MS based metabolomics approach and anti-MRSA activity-guided fractionation scheme was applied on the Gram-negative bacterium Aequorivita sp. isolated from shallow Antarctic sea sediment using a miniaturized culture chip technique. This methodology afforded the isolation of three new (1⁻3) and four known (4⁻7) N-terminal glycine- or serine-bearing iso-fatty acid amides esterified with another iso-fatty acid through their C-3 hydroxy groups. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic (NMR, [α]D and FT-IR) and spectrometric (HRMS, HRMS/MS) methods. The aminolipids possessing an N-terminal glycine unit (1, 2, 4, 5) showed moderate in vitro antimicrobial activity against MRSA (IC50 values 22⁻145 μg/mL). This is the first in-depth chemistry and biological activity study performed on the microbial genus Aequorivita.