Fatty Acid Composition and Fatty Acid Associated Gene-Expression in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) are Affected by Low-Fish Oil Diets, Dietary Resveratrol, and Holding Temperature
To sustainably produce marine fish with a high lipid quality rich in omega-3 fatty acids, alternative sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are being identified. Moreover, the use of bioactive compounds that would stimulate the in vivo fatty acid synthesis, such as resveratrol (RV), would reduce the dependence on fish oil in aquafeeds. Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were fed four experimental diets combining two fish oil levels (6% dry matter (DM); 2% DM) with or without 0.15% DM resveratrol supplementation (F6, F2, F6 + RV, F2 + RV) for two months. Additionally, the fish were challenged either at 19 °C or 23 °C. A higher water temperature promoted their feed intake and growth, resulting in an increased crude lipid content irrespective of dietary treatment. The fatty acid composition of different tissues was significantly affected by the holding temperature and dietary fish oil level. The dietary RV significantly affected the hepatic EPA and DHA content of fish held at 19 °C. The observed effect of RV may be partly explained by alterations of the mRNA steady-state levels of ∆6-desaturase and β-oxidation-related genes. Besides the relevant results concerning RV-mediated regulation of fatty acid synthesis in marine fish, further studies need to be conducted to clarify the potential value of RV to enhance fillet lipid quality.