Influence of OSMAC-Based Cultivation in Metabolome and Anticancer Activity of Fungi Associated with the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus
The fungi associated with marine algae are prolific sources of metabolites with high chemical diversity and bioactivity. In this study, we investigated culture-dependent fungal communities associated with the Baltic seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Altogether, 55 epiphytic and endophytic fungi were isolated and identified. Twenty-six strains were selected for a small-scale One-Strain-Many-Compounds (OSMAC)-based fermentation in four media under solid and liquid culture regimes. In total, 208 fungal EtOAc extracts were tested for anticancer activity and general cytotoxicity. Ten most active strains (i.e., 80 extracts) were analyzed for their metabolome by molecular networking (MN), in-silico MS/MS fragmentation analysis (ISDB⁻UNPD), and manual dereplication. Thirty-six metabolites belonging to 25 chemical families were putatively annotated. The MN clearly distinguished the impact of culture conditions in chemical inventory and anticancer activity of the fungal extracts that was often associated with general toxicity. The bioactivity data were further mapped into MN to seek metabolites, exclusively expressed in the active extracts. This is the first report of cultivable fungi associated with the Baltic F. vesiculosus that combined an OSMAC and an integrated MN-based untargeted metabolomics approaches for efficient assessment and visualization of the impact of the culture conditions on chemical space and anticancer potential of the fungi.