Evaluation of a Brown Seaweed Extract from Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for the Treatment of Glioblastoma and Uveal Melanoma
Ingredients of brown seaweed like fucoidans are often described for their beneficial biological effects, that might be interesting for a medical application. In this study, we tested an extract from Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus (DF) to evaluate the effects in glioblastoma and uveal melanoma, looking for a possible anti-cancer treatment. We investigated toxicity, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) secretion and gene expression of tumor and non-tumor cells. SVGA (human fetal astrocytes), the human RPE (retinal pigment epithelium) cell line ARPE-19, the tumor cell line OMM-1 (human uveal melanoma), and two different human primary glioblastoma cultures (116-14 and 118-14) were used. Tests for cell viability were conducted with MTS-Assay (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium), and the proliferation rate was determined with cell counting. VEGF secretion was assessed with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The gene expression of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and VEGF-A was determined with real-time qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). DF lowered the cell viability of OMM-1. Proliferation rates of ARPE-19 and OMM-1 were decreased. The VEGF secretion was inhibited in ARPE-19 and OMM-1, whereas it was increased in SVGA and 116-14. The expression of VEGFR1 was absent and not influenced in OMM-1 and ARPE-19. VEGFR2 expression was lowered in 116-14 after 24 h, whereas VEGF-A was increased in 118-14 after 72 h. The extract lowered cell viability slightly and was anti-proliferative depending on the cell type investigated. VEGF was heterogeneously affected. The results in glioblastoma were not promising, but the anti-tumor properties in OMM-1 could make them interesting for further research concerning cancer diseases in the human eye.