Chemical Diversity of Plant Cyanogenic Glycosides : An Overview of Reported Natural Products
Cyanogenic glycosides are an important and widespread class of plant natural products, which are however structurally less diverse than many other classes of natural products. So far, 112 naturally occurring cyanogenic glycosides have been described in the phytochemical literature. Currently, these unique compounds have been reported from more than 2500 plant species. Natural cyanogenic glycosides show variations regarding both the aglycone and the sugar part of the molecules. The predominant sugar moiety is glucose but many substitution patterns of this glucose moiety exist in nature. Regarding the aglycone moiety, four different basic classes can be distinguished, aliphatic, cyclic, aromatic, and heterocyclic aglycones. Our overview covers all cyanogenic glycosides isolated from plants and includes 33 compounds with a non-cyclic aglycone, 20 cyclopentane derivatives, 55 natural products with an aromatic aglycone, and four dihydropyridone derivatives. In the following sections, we will provide an overview about the chemical diversity known so far and mention the first source from which the respective compounds had been isolated. This review will serve as a first reference for researchers trying to find new cyanogenic glycosides and highlights some gaps in the knowledge about the exact structures of already described compounds.