Sulfated Polysaccharides from Macroalgae Are Potent Dual Inhibitors of Human ATP-Hydrolyzing Ectonucleotidases NPP1 and CD39
Extracellular ATP mediates proinflammatory and antiproliferative effects via activation of P2 nucleotide receptors. In contrast, its metabolite, the nucleoside adenosine, is strongly immunosuppressive and enhances tumor proliferation and metastasis. The conversion of ATP to adenosine is catalyzed by ectonucleotidases, which are expressed on immune cells and typically upregulated on tumor cells. In the present study, we identified sulfopolysaccharides from brown and red sea algae to act as potent dual inhibitors of the main ATP-hydrolyzing ectoenzymes, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (NPP1) and ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1, CD39), showing nano- to picomolar potency and displaying a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition. We showed that one of the sulfopolysaccharides tested as a representative example reduced adenosine formation at the surface of the human glioblastoma cell line U87 in a concentration-dependent manner. These natural products represent the most potent inhibitors of extracellular ATP hydrolysis known to date and have potential as novel therapeutics for the immunotherapy of cancer.