Nanotheranostics : A Possible Solution for Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and their Biofilms?
Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen that colonizes implants (orthopedic and breast implants) and wounds with a vicious resistance to antibiotic therapy. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a catastrophe mainly restricted to hospitals and emerged to community reservoirs, acquiring resistance and forming biofilms. Treating biofilms is problematic except via implant removal or wound debridement. Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanofibers could combat superbugs and biofilms and rapidly diagnose MRSA. Nanotheranostics combine diagnostics and therapeutics into a single agent. This comprehensive review is interpretative, utilizing mainly recent literature (since 2016) besides the older remarkable studies sourced via Google Scholar and PubMed. We unravel the molecular S. aureus resistance and complex biofilm. The diagnostic properties and detailed antibacterial and antibiofilm NP mechanisms are elucidated in exciting stories. We highlight the challenges of bacterial infections nanotheranostics. Finally, we discuss the literature and provide "three action appraisals". (i) The first appraisal consists of preventive actions (two wings), avoiding unnecessary hospital visits, hand hygiene, and legislations against over-the-counter antibiotics as the general preventive wing. Our second recommended preventive wing includes preventing the adverse side effects of the NPs from resistance and toxicity by establishing standard testing procedures. These standard procedures should provide breakpoints of bacteria's susceptibility to NPs and a thorough toxicological examination of every single batch of synthesized NPs. (ii) The second appraisal includes theranostic actions, using nanotheranostics to diagnose and treat MRSA, such as what we call "multifunctional theranostic nanofibers. (iii) The third action appraisal consists of collaborative actions.