Improved modeling of segmented earthquake rupture informed by enhanced signal analysis of seismic and geodetic observations
Earthquake source modeling has emerged from the need to be able to describe and quantifythe mechanism and physical properties of earthquakes. Investigations of earthquake ruptureand fault geometry requires the testing of a large number of such potential sets of earthquakesources models. Earthquakes often rupture across more than one fault segment. If such rupturesegmentation occurs on a significant scale, a simple model may not represent the rupture processwell. This thesis focuses on the data-driven inclusion of earthquake rupture segmentation intoearthquake source modeling. The developed tools and the modeling are based on the jointuse of seismological waveform far-field and geodetic Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radarnear-field surface displacement maps to characterise earthquake sources robustly with rigorousconsideration of data and modeling errors.A strategy based on information theory is developed to determine the appropriate modelcomplexity to represent the available observations in a data-driven way. This is done inconsideration of the uncertainties in the determined source mechanisms by investigating theinferences of the full Bayesian model ensemble. Application on the datasets of four earthquakesindicated that the inferred source parameters are systematically biased by the choice of modelcomplexity. This might have effects on follow-up analyses, e. g. regional stress field inversionsand seismic hazard assessments.Further, two methods were developed to provide data-driven model-independent constraints toinform a kinematic earthquake source optimization about earthquake source parameter priorestimates. The first method is a time-domain multi-array backprojection of teleseismic datawith empirical traveltime corrections to infer the spatio-temporal evolution of the rupture. Thisenables detection of potential rupture segmentation based on the occurrence of coherent high-frequency sources during the rupture process. The second developed method uses image analysismethods on satellite radar measured surface displacement maps to infer modeling constraints onrupture characteristics (e.g. strike and length) and the number of potential segments. These twomethods provide model-independent constraints on fault location, dimension, orientation andrupture timing. The inferred source parameter constraints are used to constrain an inversion forthe source mechanism of the 2016 Muji Mw 6.6 earthquake, a segmented and bilateral strike-slipearthquake.As a case study to further investigate a depth-segmented fault system and occurrence of co-seismic rupture segmentation in such a system the 2008-2009 Qaidam sequence with co-seismicand post-seismic displacements is investigated. The Qaidam 2008-2009 earthquake sequence innortheast Tibet involved two reverse-thrust earthquakes and a postseismic signal of the 2008earthquake. The 2008 Qaidam earthquake is modeled as a deep shallow dipping earthquakewith no indication of rupture segmentation. The 2009 Qaidam earthquake is modeled on threedistinct south-dipping high-angle thrusts, with a bilateral and segmented rupture process. Agood agreement between co-seismic surface displacement measurements and coherent seismicenergy emission in the backprojection results is determined.Finally, a combined framework is proposed which applies all the developed methods and tools inan informed parallel modeling of several earthquake source model complexities. This frameworkallows for improved routine determination of earthquake source modeling under considerationof rupture segmentation. This thesis provides overall an improvement for earthquake sourceanalyses and the development of modeling standards for robust determination of second-orderearthquake source parameters.