The Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Dentists in Germany
Since the announcement of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as a pandemic, several studies reported increased psychological distress among healthcare workers. In this investigation, we examined the association between psychological outcomes and various factors among German dentists. Dentists from all German federal states were invited to participate in this study through a self-administered online questionnaire between July and November 2020. This questionnaire collected information on demographics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) instrument. The associations displayed between demographic and psychological outcomes of depression, anxiety, stress, intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal were evaluated. Seven-hundred-and-thirty-two dentists participated in the survey and reported overall scores of (4.88 ± 4.85), (2.88 ± 3.57), (7.08 ± 5.04), (9.12 ± 8.44), (10.68 ± 8.88) and (10.35 ± 8.68) for depression, anxiety, stress, intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal, respectively. For females, being between 50-59 years of age, being immune deficient or chronically ill, working at a dental practice, and considering the COVID-19 pandemic a financial hazard were reported as significant associated factors (p < 0.05) with higher DASS-21 and IES-R scores. These findings underline the aspects which need to be taken into attention to protect the mental wellbeing of dentists in Germany during the crisis.