Active Infective Native and Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis : Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Patients after Surgical Treatment

Background

Active infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious disease associated with high mortality. The current study represents our experience over 18 years with surgical treatment for active infective native and prosthetic valve endocarditis (INVE, IPVE).

Method

Analysis of 413 patients (171 with IPVE vs. 242 with INVE) who underwent cardiac surgery due to IE between 2002 and 2020.

Results

Patients with IPVE were significantly older (64.9 ± 13.2 years vs. 58.3 ± 15.5 years; p < 0.001) with higher EuroSCORE II (21.2 (12.7; 41.8) vs. 6.9 (3.0; 17.0); p < 0.001)) and coronary heart disease (50.6% vs. 38.0%; p < 0.011). Preoperative embolization was significantly higher within INVE (35.5% vs. 16.4%; p < 0.001) with high incidence of cerebral embolization (18.6% vs. 7.6%; p = 0.001) and underwent emergency curative surgery than the IPVE group (19.6% vs. 10.6%; p < 0.001). However, patients with IPVE were significantly represented with intracardiac abscess (44.4% vs.15.7%; p < 0.001). Intraoperatively, the duration of surgery was expectedly significantly higher in the IPVE group (356 min vs. 244 min.; p = 0.001) as well as transfusion of blood (4 units (0-27) vs. 2 units (0-14); p < 0.001). Post-operatively, the incidence of bleeding was markedly higher within the IPVE group (700 mL (438; 1163) vs. 500 mL (250; 1075); p = 0.005). IPVE required significantly more permanent pacemakers (17.6% vs. 7.5%: p = 0.002). The 30-day mortality was higher in the IPVE group (24.6% vs. 13.2%; p < 0.003).

Conclusion

Patients with INVE suffered from a higher incidence of cerebral embolization and neurological deficits than patients with IPVE. Surgical treatment in INVE is performed mostly as an emergency indication. However, patients with IPVE were represented commonly with intracardiac abscess, and had a higher indication of pacemaker implantation. The short- and long-term mortality rate among those patients was still high.

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