# Automaten und Logiken zur Beschreibung zeitabhängiger Systeme

When speaking of a 'real-time system' we are interested in a system's evolution in time where time is viewed as linear and measured in terms of non-negative real numbers. The thesis deals with automata-theoretic models of real-time systems and their description in monadic second-order and temporal logics. A parametrized automaton model is introduced and for this model a logical description in terms of a family of existential monadic second-order logics is obtained. This characterization is used to give a logical description of the behaviour of well-known models of real-time systems: timed automata (Alur & Dill), timed automata with halting feature, and linear hybrid automata. The corresponding logics incorporate distance, duration, and integration formulas, respectively. For instance, timed automata are captured by the {\em monadic logic of relative distance.} Its signature contains for every relation symbol ~ such as <=, >=, <, >, $=$, or <> and every natural number k a binary predicate d(.,.)~k taking a set of natural numbers and a single natural number as arguments. The atomic formula d(X,y)~k is true in a timed state sequence if X contains a position smaller than y and the distance (in time) between position y and the last position before y that belongs to X satisfies the condition ~k. The monadic logic of relative distance turns out to have two important properties. First, its satisfiability problem is decidable, for its equivalence to timed automata allows a reduction of the satisfiability problem to the emptiness problem for such automata and this, in turn, is decidable due to Alur and Dill. Second, the monadic logic of relative distance is a powerful logic. One evidence for this is given by showing that the logic is strictly more expressive than the most powerful logic (for the specification of real-time systems) previously known to be decidable, namely the logic MITL^P introduced by Alur and Henzinger. By effectively embedding the latter logic in the former an alternative proof of Alur's and Henzinger's decidability result concerning MITL^P is obtained. Using embedding techniques also the decidability of Manna's and Pnueli's logic TL_Gamma is proved. Timed automata and the languages recognised by them, the so-called timed regular languages, are analysed in more detail. Several aspects are considered. A pumping lemma for timed automata is given, resulting in a formal proof that timed regular languages are not closed under complementation. It is shown that the number of clocks used in timed automata gives rise to an infinite hierarchy of timed regular languages, that the minimal number of clocks required for the recognition of a timed regular language is not computable, and that the property of a two-way timed automaton (Alur & Henzinger) to be reversal bounded is undecidable. Furthermore, unambiguous timed automata are considered, and an inherently ambiguous language is presented. Finally, variations of the emptiness problem for the three types of automata aforementioned and different restrictions concerning the event duration (bounded variation, minimal duration, and unit duration) are discussed. In particular, it is shown that bounded variation leads to a decidable emptiness problem in the case of timed automata, which implies that the full monadic logic of distance is decidable when restricted to timed state sequences of bounded variation. The obtained undecidability results give evidence that the monadic logic of relative distance is a good choice with respect to expressiveness and the requirement of a decidable satisfiability problem.

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