Melt Pond Retrieval Based on the LinearPolar Algorithm Using Landsat Data

The formation and distribution of melt ponds have an important influence on the Arctic climate. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain more accurate information on melt ponds on Arctic sea ice by remote sensing. The present large-scale melt pond products, especially the melt pond fraction (MPF), still require verification, and using very high resolution optical satellite remote sensing data is a good way to verify the large-scale retrieval of MPF products. Unlike most MPF algorithms using very high resolution data, the LinearPolar algorithm using Sentinel-2 data considers the albedo of melt ponds unfixed. In this paper, by selecting the best band combination, we applied this algorithm to Landsat 8 (L8) data. Moreover, Sentinel-2 data, as well as support vector machine (SVM) and iterative self-organizing data analysis technique (ISODATA) algorithms, are used as the comparison and verification data. The results show that the recognition accuracy of the LinearPolar algorithm for melt ponds is higher than that of previous algorithms. The overall accuracy and kappa coefficient results achieved by using the LinearPolar algorithm with L8 and Sentinel-2A (S2), the SVM algorithm, and the ISODATA algorithm are 95.38% and 0.88, 94.73% and 0.86, and 92.40%and 0.80, respectively, which are much higher than those of principal component analysis (PCA) and Markus algorithms. The mean MPF (10.0%) obtained from 80 cases from L8 data based on the LinearPolar algorithm is much closer to Sentinel-2 (10.9%) than the Markus (5.0%) and PCA algorithms (4.2%), with a mean MPF difference of only 0.9%, and the correlation coefficients of the two MPFs are as high as 0.95. The overall relative error of the LinearPolar algorithm is 53.5% and 46.4% lower than that of the Markus and PCA algorithms, respectively, and the root mean square error (RMSE) is 30.9% and 27.4% lower than that of the Markus and PCA algorithms, respectively.


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