The Diversity, Metabolomics Profiling, and the Pharmacological Potential of Actinomycetes Isolated from the Estremadura Spur Pockmarks (Portugal)
The Estremadura Spur pockmarks are a unique and unexplored ecosystem located in the North Atlantic, off the coast of Portugal. A total of 85 marine-derived actinomycetes were isolated and cultured from sediments collected from this ecosystem at a depth of 200 to 350 m. Nine genera, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharopolyspora, Actinomadura, Actinopolymorpha, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Stackebrandtia, and Verrucosispora were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses, from which the first two were the most predominant. Non-targeted LC-MS/MS, in combination with molecular networking, revealed high metabolite diversity, including several known metabolites, such as surugamide, antimycin, etamycin, physostigmine, desferrioxamine, ikarugamycin, piericidine, and rakicidin derivatives, as well as numerous unidentified metabolites. Taxonomy was the strongest parameter influencing the metabolite production, highlighting the different biosynthetic potentials of phylogenetically related actinomycetes; the majority of the chemical classes can be used as chemotaxonomic markers, as the metabolite distribution was mostly genera-specific. The EtOAc extracts of the actinomycete isolates demonstrated antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the Estremadura Spur is a source of actinomycetes with potential applications for biotechnology. It highlights the importance of investigating actinomycetes from unique ecosystems, such as pockmarks, as the metabolite production reflects their adaptation to this habitat.