Outcome of Unilateral Pulmonary Edema after Minimal-Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery : 10-Year Follow-Up

The study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) at the University Medical Center Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany (reference number: AZ D 559/18) and registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (reference number: DRKS00022222).


Unilateral pulmonary edema (UPE) is a complication after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS). We analyzed the impact of this complication on the short- and long-term outcome over a 10-year period.


We retrospectively observed 393 MIMVS patients between 01/2009 and 12/2019. The primary endpoint was a radiographically and clinically defined UPE within the first postoperative 24 h, secondary endpoints were 30-day and long-term mortality and the percentage of patients requiring ECLS. Risk factors for UPE incidence were evaluated by logistic regression, and risk factors for mortality in the follow-up period were assessed by Cox regression.


Median EuroSCORE II reached 0.98% in the complete MIMVS group. Combined 30-day and in-hospital mortality after MIMVS was 2.0% with a 95, 93 and 77% survival rate after 1, 3 and 10 years. Seventy-two (18.3%) of 393 patients developed a UPE 24 h after surgery. Six patients (8.3%) with UPE required an extracorporeal life-support system. Logistic regression analysis identified a higher creatinine level, a worse LV function, pulmonary hypertension, intraoperative transfusion and a longer aortic clamp time as predictors for UPE. Combined in hospital mortality and 30-day mortality was slightly but not significantly higher in the UPE group (4.2 vs. 1.6%; p = 0.17). Predictors for mortality during follow-up were age ≥ 70 years, impaired RVF, COPD, drainage loss ≥ 800 mL and length of ventilation ≥ 48 h. During a median follow-up of 4.6 years, comparable survival between UPE and non-UPE patients was seen in our analysis after 5 years (89 vs. 88%; p = 0.98).



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