Live Birth Rates after Active Immunization with Partner Lymphocytes
Although many potential causes have been established for recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriage (RM), about 50% of these remain idiopathic. Scientific research is focused on immunological risk factors. In the present study, we aim to evaluate live birth rates after immunization with paternal lymphocytes (lymphocyte immunotherapy (LIT)). This retrospective study consisted of 148 couples with a history of RM and/or RIF. The women underwent immunization with lymphocytes of their respective partners from November 2017 to August 2019. Fifty-five patients (43%) had live births. Stratified by indication (RM, RIF, combined), live birth rates in the RM and the combined group were significantly higher than that in the RIF group (53%, 59% and 33%, respectively, p = 0.02). The difference was especially noticeable during the first 90 days after immunization (conception rate leading to live births: 31%, 23% and 8% for RM, the combined group and RIF, respectively; p = 0.005), while there was no difference between groups during the later follow-up. LIT was associated with high live birth rates, especially in women with recurrent miscarriage. In view of the limited data from randomized studies, LIT cannot be recommended as routine therapy. However, it may be considered in individual cases.