Sex-specific risk factors for early mortality and survival after surgery of acute aortic dissection type a : a retrospective observational study
Women were older (70.7 years vs. 60.6 years; p < 0.001) and showed a higher logistic EuroSCORE I (31.0% vs. 19.7%, p < 0.001). In the male group, a higher portion of smokers (27.6% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.015) and intraoperatively, more complex procedures and longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (171 min vs. 149 min, p = 0.001) and cross-clamping times (94 min vs. 85 min, p = 0.018) occurred. 30-day mortality was 19.0% in the female and 16.5% in the male group (p = 0.545). Predictive for 30-day mortality in both genders was intraoperative blood transfusion, while in the female group chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), peripheral arterial disease and preoperative intubation were predictive. Preoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation and duration of CPB time were predictors only in males. Averaged follow-up time was 5.2 years and survival did not differ between genders, even if it was stratified by age over 70 years.
This analysis demonstrated a similar and satisfactory survival in both genders after surgical treatment of AADA. Women and men differed significantly in age, unadjusted and adjusted risk factors and complexity of surgical treatment, but gender itself was no risk factor for mortality. These results suggest that the decision-making for surgical treatment should not depend on gender, but that accounting for sex-specific risk factors rather than common risk factors may help to improve the outcome in both genders.