Hydroxyapatite/L-Lysine Composite Coating as Glassy Carbon Electrode Modifier for the Analysis and Detection of Nile Blue A
An amperometric sensor was developed by depositing a film coating of hydroxyapatite (HA)/L-lysine (Lys) composite material on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It was applied for the detection of Nile blue A (NBA). Hydroxyapatite was obtained from snail shells and its structural properties before and after its combination with Lys were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyses. The coupling of Lys to HA was attributed to favorable interaction between negatively charged -COO- groups of Lys and divalent ions Ca2+ of HA. Electrochemical investigations pointed out the improvement in sensitivity of the GCE/Lys/HA sensor towards the detection of NBA in solution. The dependence of the peak current and potential on the pH, scan rate, and NBA concentration was also investigated. Under optimal conditions, the GCE/Lys/HA sensor showed a good reproducibility, selectivity, and a NBA low detection limit of 5.07 × 10-8 mol L-1. The developed HA/Lys-modified electrode was successfully applied for the detection of NBA in various water samples.