Two-Dimensional Nanograting Fabrication by Multistep Nanoimprint Lithography and Ion Beam Etching

The application of nanopatterned electrode materials is a promising method to improve the performance of thin-film optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaics. Light coupling to active layers is enhanced by employing nanopatterns specifically tailored to the device structure. A range of different nanopatterns is typically evaluated during the development process. Fabrication of each of these nanopatterns using electron-beam lithography is time- and cost-intensive, particularly for larger-scale devices, due to the serial nature of electron beam writing. Here, we present a method to generate nanopatterns of varying depth with different nanostructure designs from a single one-dimensional grating template structure with fixed grating depth. We employ multiple subsequent steps of UV nanoimprint lithography, curing, and ion beam etching to fabricate greyscale two-dimensional nanopatterns. In this work, we present variable greyscale nanopatterning of the widely used electrode material indium tin oxide. We demonstrate the fabrication of periodic pillar-like nanostructures with different period lengths and heights in the two grating directions. The patterned films can be used either for immediate device fabrication or pattern reproduction by conventional nanoimprint lithography. Pattern reproduction is particularly interesting for the large-scale, cost-efficient fabrication of flexible optoelectronic devices


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