MT1-MMP and ADAM10/17 exhibit a remarkable overlap of shedding properties
Membrane-type-I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is one of six human membrane-bound MMPs and is responsible for extracellular matrix remodelling by degrading several substrates like fibrillar collagens, including types I-III, or fibronectin. Moreover, MT1-MMP was described as a key player in cancer progression and it is involved in various inflammatory processes, as well as in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The membrane-tethered metalloprotease meprin β as well as a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17 are also associated with these diseases. Interestingly, meprin β, ADAM10/17 and MT1-MMP also have a shared substrate pool including the interleukin-6 receptor and the amyloid precursor protein. We investigated the interaction of these proteases, focusing on a possible connection between MT1-MMP and meprin β, to elucidate the potential mutual regulations of both enzymes. Herein, we show that besides ADAM10/17, MT1-MMP is also able to shed meprin β from the plasma membrane, leading to the release of soluble meprin β. Mass spectrometry-based cleavage site analysis revealed that the cleavage of meprin β by all three proteases occurs between Pro602 and Ser603 , N-terminal of the EGF-like domain. Furthermore, only inactive human pro-meprin β is shed by MT1-MMP, which is again in accordance with the shedding capability observed for ADAM10/17. Vice versa, meprin β also appears to shed MT1-MMP, indicating a complex regulatory network. Further studies will elucidate this well-orchestrated proteolytic web under distinct conditions in health and disease and will possibly show whether the loss of one of the above-mentioned sheddases can be compensated by the other enzymes.