This chapter provides an overview of how to initiate and successfully conduct legal proceedings against the state or a private entity in the event of (partial) denial of freedom of information applications. In most cases, an administrative appeal must first be lodged with the competent authority. Subsequently, an action can be brought before the administrative court. The summoning of third parties can be useful for both the third party and the applicant. In certain cases, an application for interim relief may also be considered. The authors recapitulate the current case law and the academic literature, take a critical stance and provide instructions on how to formulate appeals and legal claims, propose different arguments to substantiate claims and give further practical advice.
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