Apitherapy and Periodontal Disease: Insights into In Vitro, In Vivo, and Clinical Studies
Periodontal diseases are caused mainly by inflammation of the gums and bones surrounding the teeth or by dysbiosis of the oral microbiome, and the Global Burden of Disease study (2019) reported that periodontal disease affects 20-50% of the global population. In recent years, more preference has been given to natural therapies compared to synthetic drugs in the treatment of periodontal disease, and several oral care products, such as toothpaste, mouthwash, and dentifrices, have been developed comprising honeybee products, such as propolis, honey, royal jelly, and purified bee venom. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature on the treatment of periodontitis using honeybee products. A literature search was performed using various databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, and Google Scholar. A total of 31 studies were reviewed using eligibility criteria published between January 2016 and December 2021. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies (randomized clinical trials) were included. Based on the results of these studies, honeybee products, such as propolis and purified bee venom, were concluded to be effective and safe for use in the treatment of periodontitis mainly due to their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, to obtain reliable results from randomized clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of honeybee products in periodontal treatment with long-term follow-up, a broader sample size and assessment of various clinical parameters are needed.