Energetic particles in the heliosphere : New measurements from Chang’E-4/LND and Solar Orbiter

Energetic particles, including Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), and Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACRs), play a crucial role in shaping the local space environment. Understanding how these energetic particles spread throughout the heliosphere, considering different particle sources and periodically varying solar modulations and their impact on radiation environments, are still subjects of ongoing debate in the scientific community. To address these questions and advance our understanding, we need new instruments that are essential to provide new measurements of energetic particles from unique perspectives. The Lunar Lander Neutron and Dosimetry Experiment (LND) aboard the Chang'E - 4 lander and the High-Energy Telescope (HET) onboard the Solar Orbiter (SolO) are such two new state-of-the-art high-energy particle telescopes that provide invaluable insights into the nature of local space environment.  
In the first part of this thesis, we present new measurements obtained from LND on the lunar surface during the solar activity minimum, including the first SEP event, the flux of GCRs, and the intensity of albedo protons, which are generated by the interaction between GCRs and the lunar regolith. Besides, attention is also devoted to the calibration of data, the validation of the instrument performance, and the generation of reliable scientific data products.
The second part of this thesis focuses on the new measurements from HET. Firstly, the quiet time spectra of ions between 2020.02 and 2021.01 are reported. These spectra are averaged between 0.5 - 1 au and clearly show GCRs, ACRs, and the very low energy part of the spectrum. Lastly, we present preliminary results regarding the observation of ACRs and the radial gradient of ACR helium between 2020.02 and 2022.10.

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