Sex-Specific Risk Factors for Short- and Long-Term Outcomes after Surgery in Patients with Infective Endocarditis

(1) Background: Surgery for infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with considerable mortality and it is controversial whether the female gender is predictive for a worse outcome. This large single-center study investigated the impact of sex on outcomes after surgery for IE. (2) Methods: 413 patients (25.4% female) were included into this retrospective observational study. Univariate and multivariable analyses identified sex-specific risk factors for 30 day and late mortality. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier-method. (3) Results: Women presented more often with mitral valve infection (p = 0.039). Men presented more frequently with previous endocarditis (p = 0.045), coronary heart disease (p = 0.033), and aortic valve infection (p = 0.005). Blood transfusion occurred more frequently intraoperatively in women (p < 0.001), but postoperatively in men (p = 0.015) and men had a longer postoperative stay (p = 0.046). Women showed a higher 30 day mortality than men (p = 0.007) and female gender was predictive for 30 day mortality (OR 2.090). Late survival showed no sex-specific difference (p = 0.853), and the female gender was not an independent predictor for late mortality (p = 0.718). Risk factors for early and late mortality showed distinct sex-specific differences such as increased preoperative CRP level in women and culture-negative IE in men.


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