European Academy of Neurology/Movement Disorder Society - European Section guideline on the treatment of Parkinson's disease: I. Invasive therapies

Two research questions have been answered with eight recommendations and five clinical consensus statements. Invasive therapies are reserved for specific patient groups and clinical situations mostly in the advanced stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). Interventions may be considered only for special patient profiles, which are mentioned in the text. Therapy effects are reported as change compared with current medical treatment. STN-DBS is the best-studied intervention for advanced PD with fluctuations not satisfactorily controlled with oral medications; it improves motor symptoms and QoL, and treatment should be offered to eligible patients. GPi-DBS can also be offered. For early PD with early fluctuations, STN-DBS is likely to improve motor symptoms, and QoL and can be offered. DBS should not be offered to people with early PD without fluctuations. LCIG and an apomorphine pump can be considered for advanced PD with fluctuations not sufficiently managed with oral treatments. Unilateral MRgFUS of the STN can be considered for distinctly unilateral PD within registries. Clinical consensus was reached for the following statements: Radiosurgery with gamma radiation cannot be recommended, unilateral radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the pallidum for advanced PD with treatment-resistant fluctuations and unilateral radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the thalamus for resistant tremor can be recommended if other options are not available, unilateral MRgFUS of the thalamus for medication-resistant tremor of PD can be considered only within registries, and unilateral MRgFUS of the pallidum is not recommended.


Evidence for invasive therapies in PD is heterogeneous. Only some of these therapies have a strong scientific basis. They differ in their profile of effects and have been tested only for specific patient groups.


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