Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Corrosion and Self-Protection Processes in Reinforced Concrete
The chloride induced corrosion of steel in concrete is one of the biggest durability issues affecting structures worldwide. Concrete structures that are installed in marine environment and those exposed frequently to de-icing salts in the winter season, such as bridges and parking structures, are particularly susceptible to corrosion induced damage. In worst cases, the structure is unable to fulfil its entire service life and needs extensive repairs or is decommissioned quite early. Such situations can have a strong impact on society which is dependent on infrastructures for mobility and transportation of essential materials. Moreover, the economic losses are predicted in billions in the coming future and can impact the global economy. In an attempt to increase the service life of concrete structures with respect to chloride durability, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) are introduced as chloride ion entrapping additive in concrete. LDH encapsulates chloride ions from the environment which can extend the service life of concrete structures. It can also be tailored to deliver corrosion inhibiting ions which can mitigate the chloride induced damage in concrete. A new concrete mix with LDH was developed in this work for building long lasting infrastructure exposed to chloride ingress in submerged marine zones. Predictive modelling approaches are used to study the corrosion processes and chloride durability of concrete. Multi-ion transport model is used to predict the efficiency of LDH in concrete concerning chloride ingress. Computational results are presented which compare chloride ingress in concrete with and without LDH. Formation factor has been used in this study to determine the microstructure related properties of concrete with and without LDH. Additionally, experimental investigations are presented which report on the stability and chloride binding capacity of LDH in synthetic alkaline solutions, concrete pore solutions, mortars and also in concrete. The compatibility of LDH with cement is also presented. The work highlights that LDH is able to improve the chloride durability of concrete. Furthermore, In-situ investigations are carried out to understand the stability of LDH inside concrete.
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