Representation Learning for Texts and Graphs : A Unified Perspective on Efficiency, Multimodality, and Adaptability
[...] This thesis is situated between natural language processing and graph representation learning and investigates selected connections. First, we introduce matrix embeddings as an efficient text representation sensitive to word order. [...] Experiments with ten linguistic probing tasks, 11 supervised, and five unsupervised downstream tasks reveal that vector and matrix embeddings have complementary strengths and that a jointly trained hybrid model outperforms both. Second, a popular pretrained language model, BERT, is distilled into matrix embeddings. [...] The results on the GLUE benchmark show that these models are competitive with other recent contextualized language models while being more efficient in time and space. Third, we compare three model types for text classification: bag-of-words, sequence-, and graph-based models. Experiments on five datasets show that, surprisingly, a wide multilayer perceptron on top of a bag-of-words representation is competitive with recent graph-based approaches, questioning the necessity of graphs synthesized from the text. [...] Fourth, we investigate the connection between text and graph data in document-based recommender systems for citations and subject labels. Experiments on six datasets show that the title as side information improves the performance of autoencoder models. [...] We find that the meaning of item co-occurrence is crucial for the choice of input modalities and an appropriate model. Fifth, we introduce a generic framework for lifelong learning on evolving graphs in which new nodes, edges, and classes appear over time. [...] The results show that by reusing previous parameters in incremental training, it is possible to employ smaller history sizes with only a slight decrease in accuracy compared to training with complete history. Moreover, weighting the binary cross-entropy loss function is crucial to mitigate the problem of class imbalance when detecting newly emerging classes. [...]
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