Comparison of Fucoidans from Saccharina latissima Regarding Age-Related Macular Degeneration Relevant Pathomechanisms in Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Fucoidans from brown algae are described as anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiangiogenic. We tested two Saccharina latissima fucoidans (SL-FRO and SL-NOR) regarding their potential biological effects against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Primary porcine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), human RPE cell line ARPE-19, and human uveal melanoma cell line OMM-1 were used. Cell survival was assessed in tetrazolium assay (MTT). Oxidative stress assays were induced with erastin or H2O2. Supernatants were harvested to assess secreted vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in ELISA. Barrier function was assessed by measurement of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Protectin (CD59) and retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein (RPE65) were evaluated in western blot. Polymorphonuclear elastase and complement inhibition assays were performed. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments was tested in a fluorescence assay. Secretion and expression of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed with ELISA and real-time PCR. Fucoidans were chemically analyzed. Neither toxic nor antioxidative effects were detected in ARPE-19 or OMM-1. Interleukin 8 gene expression was slightly reduced by SL-NOR but induced by SL-FRO in RPE. VEGF secretion was reduced in ARPE-19 by SL-FRO and in RPE by both fucoidans. Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid induced interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 secretion was reduced by both fucoidans in RPE. CD59 expression was positively influenced by fucoidans, and they exhibited a complement and elastase inhibitory effect in cell-free assay. RPE65 expression was reduced by SL-NOR in RPE. Barrier function of RPE was transiently reduced.Phagocytosis ability was slightly reduced by both fucoidans in primary RPE but not in ARPE-19.